so far (by now)

Поэтому к списку ключевых фраз мы можем добавить еще два слова, которые связывают наш жизненный опыт с настоящим моментом:

Это фразы never(имеется в виду никогда до настоящего момента)

и ever(когда-либо по настоящий момент - встречается в основном в вопросах)

Have you ever been to Istanbul? (in your life by now)

Has he ever climbed in the Alps? (in his life by now)

Have they ever seen each other before? (in their lives by now)

Has she ever watched 'Gone with the Wind'? (in her life by now)

I've never been to Brazil! (in my life by so far (by now) now)

He's never seen the sunset in the mountains. (in his life by now)

They've never met before. (in their lives by now)

She's never learnt how to cook. (in her life by now)

!!!! Очень важно помнить, что действие в The Present Perfectсвязано с настоящим моментом или с периодом времени, которое связано с настоящим моментом!

I've been to Prague two times before. (in my life , before now)

She's writtentwo postcards today. (today is not finished yet)



При этом мы не знаем точно, когда случилось действие!!!

Ноесли мы говорим точное время, когда случилось действие или so far (by now) упоминаем законченный период времени, который не связан с настоящим - мы используем The Past Simple!!!

I went to Prague in 2000 and in 2005.

She wrote two postcards yesterday.

in 2000 in 2005 yesterday


Phrases, that we use with the Past Simple Phrases, that we use with The Present Perfect.
- at 5 o'clock; at half past 8; at 20 to 6; - In 1990; in 2006; in the 20th century; - 10 years ago; 6 months ago; 2 hours ago; 8 minutes ago; a minute ago - already - just - yet - so far, by now - recently; before
- yesterday - last week, last month, last year - a long time ago - today - this week, this month, this year - in my life - ever; never so far (by now) (in my life)

Документ so far (by now)